Badges can be awarded to recognize and celebrate many types of desired behaviors. (That means they are, by nature, multi-dimensional.) Beginning in 2011, communities of developers created an open source effort to recognize skills and achievements for activities that typically happen outside of school. They called this creating an infrastructure for badges. Eventually, the project should mean that students will be able to earn "badges" for skills and those badges will become a part of their official resume.
The nonprofit Mozilla organization is developing an Open Badge Infrastructure to support such badges. The work is supported by the MacArthur Foundation.
Also see a series of interviews about the Mozilla project, commissioned by the organization and written by blogger, Audrey Watters on her blog, HackEducation. Among them: